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看板管理---掌控生产现场

发表时间:2019-10-31 14:22:06

JIT生产方式是以降低成本为基本目的,在生产系统的各个环节全面展开的一种使生产有效进行的新型生产方式。JIT又采用了看板管理工具,看板犹如巧妙连接各道工序的神经而发挥着重要作用。电子看板优点:形象、简洁、清晰、明确。


1.看板管理的概念


宝斗KANBANGUANLIFANGFASHIZAITONGYIDAOGONGXUHUOZHEQIANHOUGONGXUZHIJIANJINXINGWULIUHUOXINXILIUDECHUANDI。JITSHIYIZHONGLADONGSHIDEGUANLIFANGSHI,TAXUYAOCONGZUIHOUYIDAOGONGXUTONGGUOXINXILIUXIANGSHANGYIDAOGONGXUCHUANDIXINXI,ZHEIZHONGCHUANDIXINXIDEZAITIJIUSHIKANBAN。MEIYOUKANBAN,JITSHIWUFAJINXINGDE。YINCI,JITSHENGCHANFANGSHIYOUSHIYEBEICHENGZUOKANBANSHENGCHANFANGSHI。


YIDANZHUSHENGCHANJIHUAQUEDINGYIHOU,JIUHUIXIANGGEGESHENGCHANCHEJIANXIADASHENGCHANZHILING,RANHOUMEIYIGESHENGCHANCHEJIANYOUXIANGQIANMIANDEGEDAOGONGXUXIADASHENGCHANZHILING,ZUIHOUZAIXIANGCANGKUGUANLIBUMEN、CAIGOUBUMENXIADAXIANGYINGDEZHILING。ZHEIXIESHENGCHANZHILINGDECHUANDIDOUSHITONGGUOKANBANLAIWANCHENGDE。


2.看板与MRP的关系


SUIZHEXINXIJISHUDEFEISUFAZHAN,DANGQIANDEKANBANFANGSHICHENGXIANCHUZHUJIANBEIDIANNAOSUOQUDAI。MRPXITONGJIUSHIJIANGJITSHENGCHANZHIJIANDEKANBANYONGDIANNAOLAIDAITI,MEIYIDAOGONGXUZHIJIANDOUJINXINGLIANWANG,ZHILINGDEXIADA、GONGXUZHIJIANDEXINXIGOUTONGDOUTONGGUODIANNAOLAIWANCHENG。


MUQIANGUONEIYOUHENDUOQIYEDOUZAITUIXINGMRP,DANZHENZHENGHUODECHENGGONGDEQUEHENSHAO,QIZHONGDEZHUYAOYUANYINJIUSHIQIYEZAIMEIYOUSHIXINGJITDEQINGKUANGXIAJIUZHIJIETUIXINGMRP。SHIJISHANG,MRPZHIBUGUOSHIYIZHONGJIANGZHONGDUOFUZADESHOUGONGCAOZUODIANNAOHUADERUANJIAN,SUIRANNENGGOUDADATIGAOSHENGCHANXIAOLV,DANSHIBINGBUNENGCHULIJITSUOTICHUDEYIXIEGUANNIANHEFANGFA。YINCI,MRPJINJINSHIYIGEGONGJU,BIXUJIANLIZAITUIXINGJITDEJICHUZHISHANG。RUGUOQIYEMEIYOUTUIXINGJITJIUQUZHIJIESHIYONGMRP,NEIZHIHUILANGFEISHIJIANHEJINQIAN。


3.看板的机能


KANBANZUICHUSHIFENGTIANQICHEGONGSIYU20SHIJI50NIANDAICONGCHAOJISHICHANGDEYUNXINGJIZHIZHONGDEDAOQISHI,ZUOWEIYIZHONGSHENGCHAN、YUNSONGZHILINGDECHUANDIGONGJUERBEICHUANGZAOCHULAIDE。JINGGUOJIN50NIANDEFAZHANHEWANSHAN,MUQIANYIJINGZAIHENDUOFANGMIANDOUFAHUIZHEZHONGYAODEJINENG。


生产及运送工作指令


SHENGCHANJIYUNSONGGONGZUOZHILINGSHIKANBANZUIJIBENDEJINENG。GONGSIZONGBUDESHENGCHANGUANLIBUGENJUSHICHANGYUCEJIDINGHUOERZHIDINGDESHENGCHANZHILINGZHIXIADADAOZONGZHUANGPEIXIAN,GEDAOQIANGONGXUDESHENGCHANDOUGENJUKANBANLAIJINXING。KANBANZHONGJIZAIZHESHENGCHANHEYUNSONGDESHULIANG、SHIJIAN、MUDEDI、FANGZHICHANGSUO、BANYUNGONGJUDENGXINXI,CONGZHUANGPEIGONGXUZHUCIXIANGQIANGONGXUZHUISU。  


ZAIZHUANGPEIXIANJIANGSUOSHIYONGDELINGBUJIANSHANGSUODAIDEKANBANQUXIA,YICIZAIQUQIANYIDAOGONGXULINGQU。QIANGONGXUZEZHISHENGCHANBEIZHEIXIEKANBANSUOLINGZOUDELIANG,“HOUGONGXULINGQU”JI“SHISHISHILIANGSHENGCHAN”JIUSHITONGGUOZHEIXIEKANBANLAISHIXIANDE。   


防止过量生产和过量运送


KANBANBIXUANZHAOJIDINGDEYUNYONGGUIZELAISHIYONG。QIZHONGDEGUIZEZHIYISHI:“MEIYOUKANBANBUNENGSHENGCHAN,YEBUNENGYUNSONG。”GENJUZHEIYIGUIZE,GEGONGXURUGUOMEIYOUKANBAN,JIUJIBUJINXINGSHENGCHAN,YEBUJINXINGYUNSONG;KANBANSHULIANGJIANSHAO,ZESHENGCHANLIANGYEXIANGYINGJIANSHAO。YOUYUKANBANSUOBIAOSHIDEZHISHIBIYAODELIANG,YINCIYUNYONGKANBANNENGGOUZUODAOZIDONGFANGZHIGUOLIANGSHENGCHAN、GUOLIANGYUNSONG。


进行“目视管理”的工具


KANBANDELINGYITIAOYUNYONGGUIZESHI“KANBANBIXUFUZAISHIWUSHANGCUNFANG”、“QIANGONGXUANZHAOKANBANQUXIADESHUNXUJINXINGSHENGCHAN”。GENJUZHEIYIGUIZE,ZUOYEXIANCHANGDEGUANLIRENYUANDUISHENGCHANDEYOUXIANSHUNXUNENGGOUYIMULERAN,HENRONGYIGUANLI。ZHIYAOTONGGUOKANBANSUOBIAOSHIDEXINXI,JIUKEZHIDAOHOUGONGXUDEZUOYEJINZHANQINGKUANG、BENGONGXUDESHENGCHANNENGLILIYONGQINGKUANG、KUCUNQINGKUANGYIJIRENYUANDEPEIZHIQINGKUANGDENG。  


改善的工具


KANBANDEGAISHANGONGNENGZHUYAOTONGGUOJIANSHAOKANBANDESHULIANGLAISHIXIAN。KANBANSHULIANGDEJIANSHAOYIWEIZHEGONGXUJIANZAIZHIPINKUCUNLIANGDEJIANSHAO。RUGUOZAIZHIPINCUNLIANGJIAOGAO,JISHISHEBEICHUXIANGUZHANG、BULIANGCHANPINSHUMUZENGJIA,YEBUHUIYINGXIANGDAOHOUGONGXUDESHENGCHAN,SUOYIRONGYIYANGAIWENTI。ZAIJITSHENGCHANFANGSHIZHONG,TONGGUOBUDUANJIANSHAOSHULIANGLAIJIANSHAOZAIZHIPINKUCUN,JIUSHIDESHANGSHUWENTIBUKENENGBEIWUSHI。ZHEIYANGTONGGUOGAISHANHUODONGBUJINJIEJUELEWENTI,HAISHISHENGCHANXIANDE“TIZHI”DEDAOLEJIAQIANG。


4.看板操作的使用规则


宝斗KANBANSHIJITSHENGCHANFANGSHIZHONGDUJUTESEDEGUANLIGONGJU,KANBANDECAOZUOBIXUYANGEFUHEGUIFAN,FOUZEJIUHUIXIANRUXINGSHIZHUYIDENITAN,QIBUDAOYINGYOUDEXIAOGUO。GAIKUODIJIANG,KANBANCAOZUOGUOCHENGZHONGYINGGAIZHUYIYIXIASHIYONGYUANZE:MEIYOUKANBANBUNENGSHENGCHANYEBUNENGBANYUN,KANBANZHINENGLAIZIHOUGONGXU,QIANGONGXUZHINENGSHENGCHANQUZOUDEBUFEN,QIANGONGXUANSHOUDAOKANBANDESHUNXUJINXINGSHENGCHAN,KANBANBIXUHESHIWUYIQIYIJIBUBABULIANGPINJIAOJIHOUGONGXU。


5.看板的种类


KANBANDEBENZHISHIZAIXUYAODESHIJIAN,ANXUYAODELIANGDUISUOXULINGBUJIANFACHUSHENGCHANZHILINGDEYIZHONGXINXIMEIJIETI,ERSHIXIANZHEIYIGONGNENGDEXINGSHIKEYISHIDUOZHONGDUOYANGDE。KANBANZONGTISHANGFENWEISANDALEI:CHUANSONGKANBAN、SHENGCHANKANBANHELINSHIKANBAN。


工序内看板


GONGXUNEIKANBANSHIZHIMOUGONGXUJINXINGJIAGONGSHISUOYONGDEKANBAN。ZHEIZHONGKANBANYONGYUZHUANGPEIXIANYIJIJISHISHENGCHANDUOZHONGCHANPINYEBUXUYAOSHIZHIXINGDEZUOYEGENGHUANSHIJIAN(ZUOYEGENGHUANSHIJIANJIEJINYULING)DEGONGXU,LIRUJIJIAGONGGONGXUDENG。


信号看板


XINHAOKANBANSHIZAIBUDEBUJINXINGCHENGPISHENGCHANDEGONGXUZHIJIANSUOSHIYONGDEKANBAN。LIRUSHUZHICHENGXINGGONGXU、MODUANGONGXUDENG。XINHAOKANBANGUAZAICHENGPIZHIZUOCHUDECHANPINSHANG,DANGGAIPICHANPINDESHULIANGJIANSHAODAOJIZHUNSHUSHIZHAIXIAKANBAN,SONGHUIDAOSHENGCHANGONGXU,RANHOUSHENGCHANGONGXUANGAIKANBANDEZHISHIKAISHISHENGCHAN。LINGWAI,CONGLINGBUJIANCHUKUDAOSHENGCHANGONGXU,YEKELIYONGXINHAOKANBANLAIJINXINGZHISHIPEISONG。


工序间看板


GONGXUJIANKANBANSHIZHIGONGCHANGNEIBUHOUGONGXUDAOQIANGONGXULINGQUSUOXUDELINGBUJIANSHISUOSHIYONGDEKANBAN。DIANXINGDEGONGXUJIANKANBAN,QIANGONGXUWEIBUJIAN1#XIAN,BENGONGXUZONGZHUANG2#XIANSUOXUYAODESHIHAOMAWEIA232-60857DELINGBUJIAN,GENJUKANBANJIUKEDAOQIANYIDAOGONGXULINGQU。


外协看板


宝斗WAIXIEKANBANSHIZHENDUIWAIBUDEXIEZUOCHANGJIASUOSHIYONGDEKANBAN。DUIWAIDINGHUOKANBANSHANGBIXUJIZAIJINHUODANWEIDEMINGCHENGHEJINHUOSHIJIAN、MEICIJINHUODESHULIANGDENGXINXI。WAIXIEKANBANYUGONGXUJIANKANBANLEISI,ZHISHI“QIANGONGXU”BUSHINEIBUDEGONGXUERSHIGONGYINGSHANG,TONGGUOWAIXIEKANBANDEFANGSHI,CONGZUIHOUYIDAOGONGXUMANMANWANGQIANLADONG,ZHIZHIGONGYINGSHANG。YINCI,YOUSHIHOUQIYEHUIYAOQIUGONGYINGSHANGYETUIXINGJITSHENGCHANFANGSHI。


临时看板


宝斗LINSHIKANBANSHIZAIJINXINGSHEBEIBAOQUAN、SHEBEIXIULI、LINSHIRENWUHUOXUYAOJIABANSHENGCHANDESHIHOUSUOSHIYONGDEKANBAN。YUQITAZHONGLEIDEKANBANBUTONGDESHI,LINSHIKANBANZHUYAOSHIWEILEWANCHENGFEIJIHUANEIDESHENGCHANHUOSHEBEIWEIHUDENGRENWU,YINERLINGHUOXINGBIJIAODA。


6.看板的使用方法  


KANBANYOURUOGANZHONGLEI,YINERKANBANDESHIYONGFANGFAYEBUJINXIANGTONG。RUGUOBUZHOUMIDEZHIDINGKANBANDESHIYONGFANGFA,SHENGCHANJIUWUFAZHENGCHANGJINXING,WOMENCONGKANBANDESHIYONGFANGFASHANGKEYIJINYIBULINGHUIJITSHENGCHANFANGSHIDEDUTEXING。ZAISHIYONGKANBANSHI,MEIYIGECHUANSONGKANBANZHIDUIYINGYIZHONGLINGBUJIAN,MEIZHONGLINGBUJIANZONGSHICUNFANGZAIGUIDINGDE、XIANGYINGDERONGQINEI。YINCI,MEIGECHUANSONGKANBANDUIYINGDERONGQIYESHIYIDINGDE。


工序内看板的使用方法


宝斗GONGXUNEIKANBANDESHIYONGFANGFAZHONGZUIZHONGYAODEYIDIANSHIKANBANBIXUSUISHIWU,JIYUCHANPINYIQIYIDONG。HOUGONGXULAILINGQUZHONGJIANPINSHIZHAIXIAGUAZAICHANPINSHANGDEGONGXUNEIKANBAN,RANHOUGUASHANGLINGQUYONGDEGONGXUJIANKANBAN。GAIGONGXURANHOUANZHAOKANBANBEIZHAIXIADESHUNXUYIJIZHEIXIEKANBANSUOBIAOSHIDESHULIANGJINXINGSHENGCHAN,RUGUOZHAIXIADEKANBANSHULIANGBIANWEILING,ZETINGZHISHENGCHAN,ZHEIYANGJIBUHUIYANWUYEBUHUICHANSHENGGUOLIANGDECUNCHU。


信号看板的使用方法


XINHAOKANBANGUAZAICHENGPIZHIZUOCHUDECHANPINSHANGMIAN。RUGUOGAIPICHANPINDESHULIANGJIANSHAODAOJIZHUNSHUSHIJIUZHAIXIAKANBAN,SONGHUIDAOSHENGCHANGONGXU,RANHOUSHENGCHANGONGXUANZHAOGAIKANBANDEZHISHIKAISHISHENGCHAN。MEIYOUZHAIPAIZESHUOMINGSHULIANGZUGOU,BUXUYAOZAISHENG?


工序间看板的使用方法


宝斗GONGXUJIANKANBANGUAZAICONGQIANGONGXULINGLAIDELINGBUJIANDEXIANGZISHANG,DANGGAILINGBUJIANBEISHIYONGHOU,QUXIAKANBAN,FANGDAOSHEZHIZAIZUOYECHANGDIDEKANBANHUISHOUXIANGNEI。KANBANHUISHOUXIANGZHONGDEGONGXUJIANKANBANSUOBIAOSHIDEYISISHI“GAILINGJIANYIBEISHIYONG,QINGBUCHONG”。XIANCHANGGUANLIRENYUANDINGSHILAIHUISHOUKANBAN,JIZHONGQILAIHOUZAIFENSONGDAOGEGEXIANGYINGDEQIANGONGXU,YIBIANLINGQUXUYAOBUCHONGDELINGBUJIAN。


外协看板的使用方法


宝斗WAIXIEKANBANDEZHAIXIAHEHUISHOUYUGONGXUJIANKANBANJIBENXIANGTONG。HUISHOUYIHOUANGEXIEZUOCHANGJIAFENKAI,DENGGEXIEZUOCHANGJIALAISONGHUOSHIYOUTAMENDAIHUIQU,CHENGWEIGAICHANGXIACISHENGCHANDESHENGCHANZHISHI。ZAIZHEIZHONGQINGKUANGXIA,GAIPICHANPINDEJINHUOZHISHAOJIANGHUIYANCHIYIHUIYISHANG。YINCI,XUYAOANZHAOYANCHIDEHUISHUFAXINGXIANGYINGDEKANBANSHULIANG,ZHEIYANGJIUNENGGOUZUODAOANZHAOJITJINXINGXUNHUAN。


7.用看板组织生产的过程  


JIT是拉动式的生产,通过电子看板宝斗来传递信息,从最后一道工序一步一步往前工序拉动。例如生产过程共有三道工序,从第三道工序的入口存放处向第二道工序的出口存放处传递信息,第二道工序从其入口存放处向第一道工序出口存放处传递信息,而第一道工序则从其入口存放处向原料库领取原料。这样,通过看板就将整个生产过程有机的组织起来。