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拉动式生产方式是什么?

发表时间:2019-11-13 11:44:14

一、看板拉动式生产方式概述


  KANBANLADONGSHISHENGCHANSHIFENGTIANSHENGCHANMOSHILIANGDAZHIZHUZHIYI“ZHUNSHISHENGCHAN,JIT(Just In Time)”DEYISHIXIANDEJISHUCHENGZAI。ZHEIYESHIDAYENAIYIPINGJIECHAOQUNDEXIANGXIANGLI,CONGMEIGUOCHAOSHISHOUHUOFANGSHIZHONGJIEJIANDAODESHENGCHANFANGFA。XIANGDUIYUGUOQUDETUIDONGSHENGCHANZHONG,QIANYIZUOYEJIANGLINGJIANSHENGCHANCHULAI“TUIJI”HOUYIZUOYEJIAGONG,ZAILASHISHENGCHANZHONG,SHIHOUYIZUOYEGENJUXUYAOJIAGONGDUOSHAOCHANPIN,YAOQIUQIANYIZUOYEZHIZAOZHENGHAOXUYAODELINGJIAN。“KANBANGUANLI”JIUSHIZAIGEGEZUOYEZHIJIANCHUANDIZHEIZHONGXINXI、YUNYINGZHEIZHONGXITONGDEGONGJU。


  YUKANBANLADONGSHISHENGCHANXIANGDUIYINGDESHITUIJINSHISHENGCHAN(Push Production)。ZAITUIJINSHISHENGCHANZHONG,MEIYIGONGXUDOUGENJUSHENGCHANJIHUA,JINQISUONENGDISHENGCHAN,JINKUAIWANCHENGSHENGCHANRENWU,BUGUANXIAYIGONGXUDANGSHISHIFOUXUYAO。CHUANTONGDESHENGCHANXITONGYIBANWEITUIJINSHISHENGCHAN,TUIJINSHISHENGCHANJIANGZAOCHENGWUPINDEDUIJI。


二、精益生产在我国汽车行业实践中存在的问题


  1989NIAN,MEIGUOMASHENGLIGONGXUEYUANFABIAOLE“GAIBIANSHIJIEDEJIQI”DEZHUMINGBAOGAO,ZONGJIELEFENGTIANJINGYISHENGCHANFANGSHI,ZHICHUTADEZHONGDALISHIYIYI,BINGBARIBENQUDECHENGGONGDESHENGCHANFANGSHICHENGWEIJINGYISHENGCHAN。JINGYISHENGCHANDEJIBENMUDESHI,YAOZAIYIGEQIYELITONGSHIHUODEJIGAODESHENGCHANLV、JIJIADECHANPINZHILIANGHEHENDADESHENGCHANROUXING;XIAOCHUJIAZHILIUZHONGDEYIQIEQIDALANGFEI。


  JINGYISHENGCHANTIXIDEJIEGOUKEYIJIANSHUWEI:YIGEJICHU、QIGEZHICHENGHEZHUIQIUQIGE“LING”DEJIXIANMUBIAO。

宝斗  YIGEJICHU:JIYI5SWEIGUANLISHOUDUANDELIANGHAOXIANCHANGJICHU。SUOWEI5S,JIZHENGLI、ZHENGDUN、QINGSAO、QINGJIEHESUYANG。


  七个支撑:

    (1)SHENGCHANDEKUAISUHUANCHAN(SMED)YUWEIHUTIXI;

宝斗    (2)JINGYIPINZHIBAOZHENGYUFANGCUOZIDONGHUATIXI;

宝斗    (3)ROUXINGHUASHENGCHANTIXI;

    (4)JUNHENGHUAHETONGBUHUATIXI;

    (5)XIANCHANGZUOYEIEYANJIUTIXI;

    (6)SHENGCHANSHEJIYUGAOXIAOWULIUTIXI;

    (7)CHANPINKAIFASHEJITIXI。


  七个极限目标:

    (1)LINGQIEHUANDIAOZHENG;

    (2)LINGKUCUN;

宝斗    (3)LINGLANGFEI;   

    (4)LINGBULIANGSHENGCHAN;

    (5)LINGZHUANGBEIGUZHANG;    

    (6)LINGSHENGCHANTINGZHI;

    (7)LINGANQUANSHIGU。


  RIBENQICHEYEYUNYONGFENGTIANJINGYISHENGCHANFANGSHI,ZHONGYUCHAOYUEMEIGUO,YIYUECHENGWEISHIJIEDIYIDAQICHESHENGCHANGUO。MEIGUOTONGGUODUIRIBENCHENGGONGJINGYANDERENZHENZONGJIEHETILIAN,ZAISHIJIANZHONGXUEXIJINGYISHENGCHANFANGSHI,YEQUDELEJIAODADECHENGGONG,1990NIANQIZAIBEIMEIDESHICHANGFENEZHONGYUCHAOGUOLERIBEN。


宝斗  JINGYISHENGCHANZUOWEIYIZHONGXINDESHENGCHANGUANLIMOSHI,ZAIGUOWAIQICHEZHIZAOYEYINGYONGDECHENGGONG,YINFALEGUONEIQIYEDEXINGQU,FENFENKAISHIXUEXIHECHANGSHIJINGYISHENGCHANGUANLIFANGSHI。RUDONGFENGQICHEJITUAN、YIQIJITUAN、YUEJINQICHEJITUANDENG。DANSHIGUONEIQICHEZHIZAOYE,DUIJINGYISHENGCHANDEYIZHIHEYINRUCUNZAIYIDINGDEPIANMIANXING,CHUXIANLERUXIADEWENTI:


  (1)JINZAIZHENGCHEZHUANGPEICHANGBUFENSHIXIANLEKANBANGUANLIQUHUOZHI,DUIXIAYOULINGBUJIANCHANGDESHENGCHANGUANLIBINGWEIZUOGENGSHENDEKUOZHANHETUIJIN。JIJINTUICHULEGONGCANGUANDEYANGBANCHANGHUOYANGBANCHEJIAN。


  (2)LINGBUJIANCHANGDESHENGCHANGUANLIDUOSHUYIRANCAIYONGCHUANTONGDEFANGSHILAIBAOZHENGMANZUZHENGCHECHANGDEXUQIU,QUEFAJINYIBUGAISHANSHENGCHANGUANLIDEDONGLI,YINCILANGFEIYIRANDALIANGCUNZAI。


  (3)QIYEBINGMEIYOUCONGWANSHANZHENGGEJIAZHILIUCHUFALAIZHESHOUTUIJINJINGYISHENGCHAN,ERJINSHIYIZHONGGUANLIGONGJUXINGSHISHANGDEGAISHAN(RUYOUDEQIYEJIUSHIZENGJIALEYIXIEYAOHUOKANBAN)。


  (4)MANGMUZHAOBANGUOWAIJINGYISHENGCHANDEFANGFAHEXINGSHI,DAOZHILEGUANLIWENLUAN。


宝斗  (5)QIYEDUIKAIZHANJINGYISHENGCHANDEJIANJINXINGHECHIJIUXINGRENSHIBUZU。


三、适应我国汽车制造业的需求看板拉动式生产管理


  JINGYISHENGCHANSHIYIZHONGDUIYUANGONGSUZHI、QIYEGUANLISHUIPINGJIYINGJIANZHUANGBEIYAOQIUJIAOGAODEYIZHONGXIANJINDEGUANLIFANGSHI,DANSHIWOGUOQICHEZHIZAOYECONGGUANLISHUIPINGDAOYUANGONGSUZHIPUBIANJICHUJIAOBORUO,YINCI,WOMENYINGGAIJIEHEZIJIDEXIANZHUANG,YIJINGYISIXIANGWEIZHIDAO,TUIJINSHIHEZISHENDESHENGCHANZUZHIFANGSHI。YAOXUNQIUYIZHONGNIUDAI,LIZUYUXIANZHUANG,TONGGUOCHIXUBUDUANDIGAISHANLAIZHUBUDADAOJINGYISHENGCHANFANGSHI。ZHEIZHONGNIUDAIJIUSHIXUQIUKANBANLADONGSHISHENGCHANGUANLI。


  SUOWEIXUQIUKANBANLADONGSHISHENGCHANFANGSHI,SHIZAICHUBEIYIDINGDECHENGPINHEGONGXUZAIZHIPINDETIAOJIANXIA,GENJUXUQIUYOUHOUXIANGQIANCENGCENGLADONGMEIDAOGONGXUSHENGCHAN,CONGERDADAOANSHIANLIANGTIGONGSUOXUCHANPIN。XUQIUKANBANLADONGSHISHENGCHANFANGSHISHIYIJINGYISIXIANGWEIZHIDAODE,ZHISHITALIZUYUGUOQIDESHIJI,YUNXUSHELIYOUSHAOLIANGANQUANDEKUCUNHEZAIZHIPINCHUBEI,ZHILIANGKONGZHIDABIAOSHI3XIGEMABIAOZHUN。XUQIUKANBANLADONGSHISHENGCHANSHIJINGYISHENGCHANDECHUJIJIEDUAN,TONGGUOXUQIUKANBANLADONGSHISHENGCHANLAICUJINQIYEGEGEHUANJIEBUDUANGAISHANCONGERDADAOJINGYISHENGCHANDEMUBIAO,SHIGUONEIQICHEZHIZAOQIYESHISHIJINGYISHENGCHANDEBIJINGZHILU。


  XUQIUKANBANLADONGSHISHENGCHANYIZHUNSHIHUASHENGCHANWEIHEXIN,YIJIANGDICHENGBEN、CHIXUGAISHANHETIGAOWEIMUBIAO,TONGGUOXUQIUKANBANLADONGSHIZUZHIFANGSHIDESHIXIANLAIZHUBUXIAOCHUWUXIAOSHENGCHAN,YASUOKUCUNCHUBEI,JIANGDISHENGCHANCHENGBEN,GENGJIAJISHIHEYOUXIAODIMANZUSHICHANGXUQIUDEBIANHUA,BUDUANGAIJINHEWANSHANXITONGYUNXINGFANGSHI,CONGERZHUBUDADAOJINGYISHENGCHANDEYAOQIU。


四、需求看板拉动式生产管理的实施准备和支撑体系


  (一)需求看板拉动式生产方式的实施准备


  1、SIXIANGZHUANHUANZHUNBEI。XUQIUKANBANLADONGSHISHENGCHANFANGSHIYIJINGYISIXIANGWEIZHIDAO,YINCIYAOSHISHITUIJIN,BIXUXIANZUOSIXIANGSHANGDEZHUANBIANZHUNBEI。GUOYOUQIYEXIGUANLEJIHUAJINGJIMOSHIXIADESHENGCHANGUANLI,CONGSHENGCHANDAOCAIGOUXIGUANLEDABAODALAN,YINCIBIXUDUIYUANGONGSHENZHIBAOKUOYIXIEZHUYAOGUANLIRENYUANJINXINGJINGYISIXIANGDEPEIXUN,BANGZHUTAMENZHUANBIANSIXIANGGUANNIAN,TONGGUOZUZHIZHUANTIXUEXI、TAOLUNDENGXINGSHIJIANGJINGYISIXIANGCHUANDAHEGUANSHUJIMEIWEIYUANGONG。WOMENDONGFENGQICHEXUANJIADANHUANGGONGSITONGGUOGONGSIHEBUMENLIANGJIXUEXIHETAOLUNDEFANGSHI,ZAIQUANGONGSIKAIZHANLEJINGYISIXIANGDEXUANCHUANHEXUEXI;TONGGUOGEDANWEIMEIZHOUDEBUWUHUIHEBANZUHUIXINGCHENGZHIDUHUADEXUEXIFANGSHI,ZUZHIXIANGGUANGUANLIRENYUANJIZHONGXUEXIJINGYISHENGCHANYEWUZHISHI,CUJINYUANGONGSIXIANGGUANNIANDEZHUANBIAN。


  2、XIANCHANGGAISHANZHUNBEI。XUQIUKANBANLADONGSHISHENGCHANGUANLIXUYAOJIBENLIANGHAODEXIANCHANGZUOWEIJICHUZHICHENG,YINCIZAIJUEDINGSHISHIQIANBIXUYAODUIXIANCHANGJINXINGBIYAODEZHENGDUNHEGUIFANGUANLI。WOMENGONGSISHIYIXIANCHANGDEDINGZHIGUANLI、WULIUDEGUIFANHEKUCUNDEYASUOLAIQIERUDE:ZHONGXINHUAFENZHUYAOZAIZHIPINQUYU,SHIXINGDINGZHIGUANLI;ANMUSHIHUAYAOQIUGENGXINGONGWEIQIJU,GUIFANWULIUCHENGXU;GUIFANXIANCHANGGELEIZUOYEWENJIANHEZHILIANGJILU;YASUOCHENGPINKUCUNHEGONGXUZAIZHIPINDENG,CONGERSHIXIANCHANGDADAOZHENGJIEGUIFAN。


  (二)需求看板拉动式生产管理的支撑体系


宝斗  1、XIANCHANGZHICHENG。YIGEJIBENLIANGHAODEXIANCHANGSHISHISHIQIANDEBIYAOZHUNBEI,YESHIBAOZHENGXITONGNENGCHIXUYUNXINGDEBIYAOZHICHENG,XIANCHANGDEWUXUHEHUNLUANSHIBIYINGXIANGXUQIUKANBANLADONGSHIXITONGDEYUNXINGHEXIAOGUO。XUQIUKANBANLADONGSHISHENGCHANFANGSHIDUIXIANCHANGDEGUANLIZHUYAOSHITONGGUO“5SGUANLI”FANGSHILAIDADAODE。


  2、ZHILIANGZHICHENG。LIANGHAODECHANPINZHILIANGKEYISHISHENGCHANXITONGJIANKANGGAOXIAODEYUNZHUAN。TONGGUOSHISHIISO9001HEQS9000ZHILIANGBIAOZHUN,LUOSHIBIAOZHUNTIXIYAOQIU,LVXING“YUFANGWEIZHU,CHIXUGAIJIN”HE“YICIZUOHAO”DEYUANZE,QIESHITIGAOCHANPINDESHIWUZHILIANG,CONGERGENGYOUXIAODIMANZUGUKEDEYAOQIU。


  3、ZHUANGBEIZHICHENG。YOUXIAODEZHUANGBEIBAOZHENGZHIJIEJUEDINGLEXUQIUKANBANLADONGSHISHENGCHANXITONGDESHISHIXIAOGUO。TONGGUOQUANMIANSHENGCHANGUANLIDUIZHUANGBEIJINXINGQUANYUANDEGUANLIHEWEIHU,BIANCHUANTONGDEQIANGXIUSHIGUANLIWEIYUJIANXIUSHIGUANLI,DUIGUZHANGJIAYIFENXIHEKONGZHI,TIGAOZHUANGBEIDUISHENGCHANDEBAOZHENGZUOYONG,BUJINKEYIYOUXIAOMANZUCHANPINZHUNSHIJIAOFU,GENGKEYIDADAJIANGDISHENGCHANCHENGBEN。


五、看板拉动式生产的目标


宝斗    •DUJUEXIALIEGEXIANGLANGFEI:BANYUNLANGFEI、KUCUNLANGFEI、GUOSHICHANPIN、XIULI、FANGONG、SHEBEI、SHESHI、DUOYUCUNHUO(BAOKUOZHENGZAIJIAGONGDECHANPINJICHENGPIN)

宝斗    •JIANGDIZHIZAOCHENGBENHEGUANLICHENGBEN

    •SUODUANCONGTOUCHANDAOCHANPINJIAOFUDEZHENGGEZHIZAOZHOUQI 

    •MUSHIHUAGUANLIYIQIEZIYUAN

    •TIGONGGUANLIYUPINGHENGWULIUDEFANGFA